Category Archives: History

Who are the Anzacs?

This is a name often applied collectively to the people of Australia and New Zealand. It originated during the First World War. The Australian and New Zealand divisions in the British forces were merged into a single unit officially known as the “Australian-New Zealand Army Corps.” In popular usage this name was shortened to Anzac, being the-initial letters of the words composing the name. “When I took over the command of the Australian and New Zealand Corps in Egypt (in 1914),” wrote General Sir William Birdwood after the war, “I was asked to select a telegraphic-code address and I adopted the name Anzac.” In the following spring The Australian and New Zealand forces made their heroic landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula and to commemorate the event General Birdwood named the landing place Anzac Cove. Originally only those Australian and New Zealand soldiers who fought at Oallipoli were caned Anzacs, and they jealously guarded the name, but it was gradually extended first to other members of the corps and finally to any Australian or New Zealander. The Anzac Area, a small district on the western side of the Oallipcli Peninsula, was dedicated after the war as a permanent memorial to the valor of the members of the Callipoli expeditionary army who vainly tried to take the western defenses of Constantinople in 1915-1916. By the Treaty of Lausarine, signed in 1923, Turkey granted this area in perpetuity to France, Italy and the British Empire, and these three powers agreed to appoint custodians for the graves and cemeteries. Turkey, however, controls access to the district, which under the terms of the agreement cannot be fortified or built up in any way except to provide shelter for the sale use of the custodians. In 1916 Australia and New Zealand by statute forbade the commercial use of Anzac in any trade, business, profession or calling without government permission. During the Second World War the familiar name for the Australians was Aussies. What queen reigned after death of Inez de Castro, wife of Dom Pedro, King of Portugal in the fourteenth century, is often referred to as the Qu(:en who “reigned after death.” . She became the morganatic wife of Dam Pedro while he was heir to the,throne. The Prince’s father, the King, seriously objected to the marriage. He feared the powerful Castro family; besides, Inez was believed to be of illegitimate birth. In 1355 Inez was stabbed to death supposedly at the instigation of the old King. The outraged Dam Pedro started a rebellion that did not subside until the Prince was given a large share in the government of Portugal. When the old King died in 1357 Darn Pedro succeeded to the throne. According to tradition, the new King had the body of his murdered wife exhumed, placed on a throne and crowned. All the nobles were compelled to pass and do obeisance to the dead Queen by kissing her withered hand. Then Inez, the “Queen who reigned after death,” was interred with great pomp in a beautiful sarcophagus of white marble. Shapur II, King of Persia from 310 to 370 A.D., was crowned before he was born. He was the posthumous son of Hormuzd II, whose born sons were all lolled or imprisoned by the nobles immediately after the old King’s death. The unborn child was then formally declared King as Shapur II.